Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Vilniaus etnomuzikos ansamblis „Ūla“

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Lietuvos istorijos instituto direktorius dr. Rimantas Miknys

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Leidinio „Veidrodis žiemą“ viena iš sudarytojų Gintarė Bernotienė

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

A mourning postcard from the Lithuanians in the Spask labour camp informing the women in the women's labour camp of the death of Jonas Žališauskas

Kazakh SSR, January 26, 1955, the National Museum of Lithuania

Onguday - a settlement in Gorno-Altaysk, a place of deportation of Lithuanians

1950s, the National Museum of Lithuania

A guard tower in the Reshiot labour camp

1989, the National Museum of Lithuania

The first yurt built in Bykov Mys. Approximately 12 families of Lithuanians and Finns lived in it.

Yakutia, 1951, the photo of Juozas Eidukaitis, the National Museum of Lithuania

The exhibition “Without a Homeland” is open from 9 June to 4 September 2016. The exhibition contains photographs, documents, letters, household utensils and handiworks made by deportees and political prisoners. These are authentic witnesses of the daily life of the deportees and their attempts to live a dignified life, to retain their national identity and the faith of their parents. The majority of the material exhibits belong to the collections of the National Museum of Lithuania, and individual exhibits are borrowed from private individuals. The iconographic and documentary part of the exhibition is supplemented by the material from the Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, Lithuanian Central State Archives, Lithuanian Special Archives, Tauragė Museum of Regional Ethnography and private individuals.

Political repressions experienced by the residents of Lithuania after its occupation by the Soviet Union in June 1940 is still a painful topic that does not pass into oblivion. Arrests, interrogations and searches that started immediately after the occupation gradually became daily occurrences, but the deportation campaign that was launched on the night of 14 June 1941, when a great many families of farmers, teachers and office employees were taken from their homes and deported from their Homeland was the greatest shock that befell the nation after the loss of Independence. Nobody expected such a massive and brutal treatment of innocent and peaceful citizens. Contemporaries referred to June 14 as The Black Day, and these dramatic days of deportations are still remembered as The Black June in Lithuania.

Almost immediately after the Soviet Union occupied Lithuania on 15 June 1940, potential opponents of the Soviet authorities were registered and preparations for mass repressions were made. Public servants, members of all banned parties and organisations, officers, policemen, employees of courts and public prosecutor’s offices, teachers, farmers and businessmen – everyone who was attributed to the category of “socially dangerous” according to the Soviet instructions was put on the list of “dangerous” persons.

Mass arrests started in the first half of July, in preparation for the election to the so-called People’s Seimas on July 14, and continued all year round. Before the outbreak of the war between the USSR and Germany, 6.6 thousand residents of Lithuania of various nationalities were arrested. The majority of them, circa 3.5 thousand persons, were taken to gulag prisons and work camps in April – June 1941, some of them escaped or were freed by the participants of the June uprising, and others were killed in Lithuania (Rainiai, Pravieniškės) or beyond its borders (in Cherven, at the Bihosava railway station and other locations).

From the autumn of 1940, as soon as Lithuania was annexed to the USSR, top-secret preparations for mass deportation of the country’s residents to remote locations of the Soviet Union started. During the deportation operation on 14–19 June 1941 circa 18 thousand people were taken to the designated railway stations and crammed into freight trains. Some of them, husbands torn away from their families, officers arrested in summer camps – almost four thousand people – were taken to prisons and work camps in the Soviet Union, and others, among them more than a half of women and children, were deported to the so-called special NKVD-supervised settlements in Altay Krai, Komi, Novosibirsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai. A year later, in June 1942, almost three thousand deportees, mostly women with small children and disabled men, were transferred from Altay Krai to the north of Yakutia: the islands of the delta of the Lena River and the settlements at the Laptev Sea and the Yana River. Having found themselves in extremely severe conditions, they died of famine, cold and diseases. Only 33.59 per cent of deportees of June 1941 returned to Lithuania (40.3 per cent of those taken to places of deportation, and 12.5 per cent taken to work camps), 26.5 per cent died in places of deportation and imprisonment, and the fate of almost 40 per cent of deportees is unknown.

The repressions of the Soviet authorities were temporarily halted by the war between the Soviet Union and Germany, but from July 1944, when the Red Army marched into Lithuania and the Germans retreated, arrests of “unreliable” people, roundups of men avoiding mobilisation and members of fledgling underground organisations resumed. Deportations were renewed. From early 1945 to 1953, each year several or more than a dozen trains would leave from Lithuania to Siberia, Central Asia, the Far East and other destinations.

The most massive deportation of the middle of the 20th century, which was given the code name of Vesna (Spring) in the correspondence of repressive structures, befell Lithuania on 22 May 1948. During several days of May 40 thousand people, among them almost 12 thousand children, were deported from their homeland. During the operation under the code name of Priboj (Ground Swell) executed on 25–28 March 1949, which ranked second according to the number of deported persons, approximately 29 thousand people (among them more than 8 thousand children), and during the operation Osenj (Autumn) on 2–3 October 1951 – circa 17 thousand people (among them circa 5.3 thousand children) were deported.

All in all, from 1940 to 1941 and from 1945 to 1952 approximately 275 thousand people were deported from Lithuania to the Soviet Union. More than two thirds of the deported survived in deportation and work camps. By 1960 circa 80 thousand people returned to Lithuania.

 

Exhibition “Without a Homeland”

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Vilniaus etnomuzikos ansamblis „Ūla“

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Lietuvos istorijos instituto direktorius dr. Rimantas Miknys

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Leidinio „Veidrodis žiemą“ viena iš sudarytojų Gintarė Bernotienė

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

Parodos atidarymo akimirkos

A mourning postcard from the Lithuanians in the Spask labour camp informing the women in the women's labour camp of the death of Jonas Žališauskas

Kazakh SSR, January 26, 1955, the National Museum of Lithuania

Onguday - a settlement in Gorno-Altaysk, a place of deportation of Lithuanians

1950s, the National Museum of Lithuania

A guard tower in the Reshiot labour camp

1989, the National Museum of Lithuania

The first yurt built in Bykov Mys. Approximately 12 families of Lithuanians and Finns lived in it.

Yakutia, 1951, the photo of Juozas Eidukaitis, the National Museum of Lithuania

The exhibition “Without a Homeland” is open from 9 June to 4 September 2016. The exhibition contains photographs, documents, letters, household utensils and handiworks made by deportees and political prisoners. These are authentic witnesses of the daily life of the deportees and their attempts to live a dignified life, to retain their national identity and the faith of their parents. The majority of the material exhibits belong to the collections of the National Museum of Lithuania, and individual exhibits are borrowed from private individuals. The iconographic and documentary part of the exhibition is supplemented by the material from the Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, Lithuanian Central State Archives, Lithuanian Special Archives, Tauragė Museum of Regional Ethnography and private individuals.

Political repressions experienced by the residents of Lithuania after its occupation by the Soviet Union in June 1940 is still a painful topic that does not pass into oblivion. Arrests, interrogations and searches that started immediately after the occupation gradually became daily occurrences, but the deportation campaign that was launched on the night of 14 June 1941, when a great many families of farmers, teachers and office employees were taken from their homes and deported from their Homeland was the greatest shock that befell the nation after the loss of Independence. Nobody expected such a massive and brutal treatment of innocent and peaceful citizens. Contemporaries referred to June 14 as The Black Day, and these dramatic days of deportations are still remembered as The Black June in Lithuania.

Almost immediately after the Soviet Union occupied Lithuania on 15 June 1940, potential opponents of the Soviet authorities were registered and preparations for mass repressions were made. Public servants, members of all banned parties and organisations, officers, policemen, employees of courts and public prosecutor’s offices, teachers, farmers and businessmen – everyone who was attributed to the category of “socially dangerous” according to the Soviet instructions was put on the list of “dangerous” persons.

Mass arrests started in the first half of July, in preparation for the election to the so-called People’s Seimas on July 14, and continued all year round. Before the outbreak of the war between the USSR and Germany, 6.6 thousand residents of Lithuania of various nationalities were arrested. The majority of them, circa 3.5 thousand persons, were taken to gulag prisons and work camps in April – June 1941, some of them escaped or were freed by the participants of the June uprising, and others were killed in Lithuania (Rainiai, Pravieniškės) or beyond its borders (in Cherven, at the Bihosava railway station and other locations).

From the autumn of 1940, as soon as Lithuania was annexed to the USSR, top-secret preparations for mass deportation of the country’s residents to remote locations of the Soviet Union started. During the deportation operation on 14–19 June 1941 circa 18 thousand people were taken to the designated railway stations and crammed into freight trains. Some of them, husbands torn away from their families, officers arrested in summer camps – almost four thousand people – were taken to prisons and work camps in the Soviet Union, and others, among them more than a half of women and children, were deported to the so-called special NKVD-supervised settlements in Altay Krai, Komi, Novosibirsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai. A year later, in June 1942, almost three thousand deportees, mostly women with small children and disabled men, were transferred from Altay Krai to the north of Yakutia: the islands of the delta of the Lena River and the settlements at the Laptev Sea and the Yana River. Having found themselves in extremely severe conditions, they died of famine, cold and diseases. Only 33.59 per cent of deportees of June 1941 returned to Lithuania (40.3 per cent of those taken to places of deportation, and 12.5 per cent taken to work camps), 26.5 per cent died in places of deportation and imprisonment, and the fate of almost 40 per cent of deportees is unknown.

The repressions of the Soviet authorities were temporarily halted by the war between the Soviet Union and Germany, but from July 1944, when the Red Army marched into Lithuania and the Germans retreated, arrests of “unreliable” people, roundups of men avoiding mobilisation and members of fledgling underground organisations resumed. Deportations were renewed. From early 1945 to 1953, each year several or more than a dozen trains would leave from Lithuania to Siberia, Central Asia, the Far East and other destinations.

The most massive deportation of the middle of the 20th century, which was given the code name of Vesna (Spring) in the correspondence of repressive structures, befell Lithuania on 22 May 1948. During several days of May 40 thousand people, among them almost 12 thousand children, were deported from their homeland. During the operation under the code name of Priboj (Ground Swell) executed on 25–28 March 1949, which ranked second according to the number of deported persons, approximately 29 thousand people (among them more than 8 thousand children), and during the operation Osenj (Autumn) on 2–3 October 1951 – circa 17 thousand people (among them circa 5.3 thousand children) were deported.

All in all, from 1940 to 1941 and from 1945 to 1952 approximately 275 thousand people were deported from Lithuania to the Soviet Union. More than two thirds of the deported survived in deportation and work camps. By 1960 circa 80 thousand people returned to Lithuania.

 

June 9, 2016 - September 5, 2016 | The New Arsenal, Arsenalo Str. 1


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